Saturday, August 31, 2019

international business environment Legal considerations Essay

The legal aspects are important for the business choice. Laws are different in every country. Laws would regulate business practice, define the manner and set down the rights and obligations. This made business have to run within the border set by law and definitely affects the efficiency and profitability when running business in that country. The type of legal system. The legal system in Spain and Korea is based on civil law, while court precedents are not granted official status as law. The Spanish legal system is based on comprehensive legal codes and laws rooted in Roman law, as opposed to common law, which is based on precedent court rulings. Because Japan occupied Korea from 1910 to 1945, the Korean legal system resembles the Japanese system. After the occupation however, there were attempts to adopt many aspects of the American legal system. It must be remembered that the first civilian government commenced only in 1992, and thereafter, increasingly more democratic reforms have taken place.1 Both countries use contracts and they are important for doing business in both countries. Neither Korea or Spain has advantage to the type of legal system. The protection of property right The definition of property right: In economics, property usually refers to ownership (rights to the proceeds of output generated) and control over the use of the means of production. They may be owned privately, by the state, by those who use it, or held in common by society.2 The world property right index 2012 shows the differences between the countries and the country’s world ranking. South Korea and Spain are both in the top 40 of the index. Spain ended this year on the 35th place and South Korea on the 40th place. The overall score off all the points together we can say that Spain compared with Korea is better in protection of property rights. In the figure on the next page we compare South Korea with Spain. The higher the score the better protection of property right. Property right is important for running a business because the better protect the better is the stability of the company. Overall score South Korea vs. Spain in the international world index 2012 The protection of intellectual property Intellectual property is a juridical concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognized. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property rights include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. 4 South Korea has an government organization called KIPO. This is the governmental authority in charge of intellectual property in Korea. The mission of KIPO is to help Korea become an advanced country by providing legal and institutional administration for the creation and utilization of highly creative, value-added intellectual property and by promoting technological innovation and industrial development. In Spain the main law regulating intellectual property protection is the 1996 Int ellectual Property Law. With regard to industrial property, no single law covers all aspects. Instead, this is regulated by a package of different laws, including the Patent Law, trade mark law and the law on the legal protection of industrial designs5 In the international property right index, South Korea and Spain score exactly the same and ends on the 27th place. There are 130 countries in the index so the both are trustful countries. Corruption A country where corruption is low is a really important factor to choose for a country. Corruption costs a lot of money and affects the company negative. Korea has an independent commission against Corruption. The Korea Independent Commission Against Corruption is an independent commission that reports to the President in its fight against corruption and the consequent promotion of the clean administration of South Korea. In a coordinated  effort with other monitoring agencies, also known proverbially as watchdogs, the KICAC is involved in producing policies and orchestrating preventive activities.6 Spain has different organisations to fight against corruption. The Special Attorney General’s Office for the Repression of Economic Offences related with Corruption(ACPO) is the biggest and well known organisation in Spain. 7 According to the Corruption perception index Spain scores better than South Korea. The Corruption Perceptions Index ranks countries/territories based on how corrupt a country’s public sector is perceived to be. It is a composite index, drawing on corruption-related data from expert and business surveys carried out by a variety of independent and reputable institutions. The difference between the two countries is not that big but Spain would be a saver option. Labour law Spain and South Korea have both a minimum wage8. The minimum wage in Korea is lower than in Spain which is positive for the production costs. The maximum and average working hours in Spain are also lower than in South Korea. The maximum working hours in Spain are 40 hours a week and in South Korea 48. This is positive for the production because you can have longer days and the costs are lower as well. Forced labor and child labor are prohibited in both countries. In Korea children under the age of 18 may work under certain conditions. In spain the minimum age is 16. To do so, in Korea they require a special employment certificate from the Labor Ministry, which is rarely issued because education is compulsory until the age of 14. Children under the age of 18 who wish to work require written approval from their parents or guardians. Environmental law South Korea is connected with the AECEN. This is the Asian Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Network and there is an agreement between 16 Asian countries dedicated to improving cooperation with environmental laws in Asia. The mission of the Ministry of Environment in South Korea is to protect the national territory from threats of environmental pollution and  to improve the quality of life for the public. This includes ensuring the people of South Korea can enjoy the natural environment, clean water and clear skies. Furthermore, the Ministry aims to contribute to the global efforts to protect the Earth. In February 2008, the Korea Meteorological Administration became an affiliate of the Ministry of Environment to facilitate countermeasures against climate change In Spain the central government represents Spain in the European Union and transposes European legislation into Spanish law. It is responsible for adopting national legislation on the basic and common aspects of the environment. Both countries take the environment more than serious because it can effect business and people. The better and stricter the environmental law in the country the better and more effective you can produce your products. Nowadays the mission of most companies is to be green and fight against global warming. The regulations in Europe / Spain are more strict than in Asia what can be a reason to choose for Spain. The investment in expensive machinery and products to produce is maybe higher at the start but with better machinery companies can produce more cleaner and more effective. References

Android Application Development Fundamentals

Application Fundamentals Quickview †¢ Android applications are composed of one or more application components (activities, services, content providers, and broadcast receivers) †¢ Each component performs a different role in the overall application behavior, and each one can be activated individually (even by other applications) †¢ The manifest file must declare all components in the application and should also declare all application requirements, such as the minimum version of Android required and any hardware configurations required †¢ Non-code application resources (images, strings, layout files, etc. should include alternatives for different device configurations (such as different strings for different languages and different layouts for different screen sizes) In this document 1. Application Components 1. Activating components 2. The Manifest File 1. Declaring components 2. Declaring application requirements 3. Application Resources Android applications are written in the Java programming language. The Android SDK tools compile the code—along with any data and resource files—into an Android package, an archive file with an . apk suffix. All the code in a single . pk file is considered to be one application and is the file that Android-powered devices use to install the application. Once installed on a device, each Android application lives in its own security sandbox: †¢ The Android operating system is a multi-user Linux system in which each application is a different user. †¢ By default, the system assigns each application a unique Linux user ID (the ID is used only by the system and is unknown to the application). The system sets permissions for all the files in an application so that only the user ID assigned to that application can access them. Each process has its own virtual machine (VM), so an application's code runs in isolation from other applications. †¢ By default, every application runs in its o wn Linux process. Android starts the process when any of the application's components need to be executed, then shuts down the process when it's no longer needed or when the system must recover memory for other applications. In this way, the Android system implements the principle of least privilege. That is, each application, by default, has access only to the components that it requires to do its work and no more. This creates a very secure environment in which an application cannot access parts of the system for which it is not given permission. However, there are ways for an application to share data with other applications and for an application to access system services: †¢ It's possible to arrange for two applications to share the same Linux user ID, in which case they are able to access each other's files. To conserve system resources, applications with the same user ID can also arrange to run in the same Linux process and share the same VM (the applications must also be signed with the same certificate). An application can request permission to access device data such as the user's contacts, SMS messages, the mountable storage (SD card), camera, Bluetooth, and more. All application permissions must be granted by the user at install time. That covers the basics regarding how an Android application exists within the system. The rest of this document introduces you to: †¢ The cor e framework components that define your application. †¢ The manifest file in which you declare components and required device features for your application. Resources that are separate from the application code and allow your application to gracefully optimize its behavior for a variety of device configurations. Application Components Application components are the essential building blocks of an Android application. Each component is a different point through which the system can enter your application. Not all components are actual entry points for the user and some depend on each other, but each one exists as its own entity and plays a specific role—each one is a unique building block that helps define your application's overall behavior. There are four different types of application components. Each type serves a distinct purpose and has a distinct lifecycle that defines how the component is created and destroyed. Here are the four types of application components: Activities An activity represents a single screen with a user interface. For example, an email application might have one activity that shows a list of new emails, another activity to compose an email, and another activity for reading emails. Although the activities work together to form a cohesive user experience in the email application, each one is independent of the others. As such, a different application can start any one of these activities (if the email application allows it). For example, a camera application can start the activity in the email application that composes new mail, in order for the user to share a picture. An activity is implemented as a subclass of Activity and you can learn more about it in the Activities developer guide. Services A service is a component that runs in the background to perform long-running operations or to perform work for remote processes. A service does not provide a user interface. For example, a service might play music in the background while the user is in a different application, or it might fetch data over the network without blocking user interaction with an activity. Another component, such as an activity, can start the service and let it run or bind to it in order to interact with it. A service is implemented as a subclass of Service and you can learn more about it in the Services developer guide. Content providers A content provider manages a shared set of application data. You can store the data in the file system, an SQLite database, on the web, or any other persistent storage location your application can access. Through the content provider, other applications can query or even modify the data (if the content provider allows it). For example, the Android system provides a content provider that manages the user's contact information. As such, any application with the proper permissions can query part of the content provider (such as ContactsContract. Data) to read and write information about a particular person. Content providers are also useful for reading and writing data that is private to your application and not shared. For example, the Note Pad sample application uses a content provider to save notes. A content provider is implemented as a subclass of ContentProvider and must implement a standard set of APIs that enable other applications to perform transactions. For more information, see the Content Providers developer guide. Broadcast receivers A broadcast receiver is a component that responds to system-wide broadcast announcements. Many broadcasts originate from the system—for example, a broadcast announcing that the screen has turned off, the battery is low, or a picture was captured. Applications can also initiate broadcasts—for example, to let other applications know that some data has been downloaded to the device and is available for them to use. Although broadcast receivers don't display a user interface, they may create a status bar notification to alert the user when a broadcast event occurs. More commonly, though, a broadcast receiver is just a â€Å"gateway† to other components and is intended to do a very minimal amount of work. For instance, it might initiate a service to perform some work based on the event. A broadcast receiver is implemented as a subclass of BroadcastReceiver and each broadcast is delivered as an Intent object. For more information, see the BroadcastReceiver class. A unique aspect of the Android system design is that any application can start another application’s component. For example, if you want the user to capture a photo with the device camera, there's probably another application that does that and your application can use it, instead of developing an activity to capture a photo yourself. You don't need to incorporate or even link to the code from the camera application. Instead, you can simply start the activity in the camera application that captures a photo. When complete, the photo is even returned to your application so you can use it. To the user, it seems as if the camera is actually a part of your application. When the system starts a component, it starts the process for that application (if it's not already running) and instantiates the classes needed for the component. For xample, if your application starts the activity in the camera application that captures a photo, that activity runs in the process that belongs to the camera application, not in your application's process. Therefore, unlike applications on most other systems, Android applications don't have a single entry point (there's no main() function, for example). Because the system runs each application in a separate process with file permissions that restrict access to other applications, your appl ication cannot directly activate a component from another application. The Android system, however, can. So, to activate a component in another application, you must deliver a message to the system that specifies your intent to start a particular component. The system then activates the component for you. Activating Components Three of the four component types—activities, services, and broadcast receivers—are activated by an asynchronous message called an intent. Intents bind individual components to each other at runtime (you can think of them as the messengers that request an action from other components), whether the component belongs to your application or another. An intent is created with an Intent object, which defines a message to activate either a specific component or a specific type of component—an intent can be either explicit or implicit, respectively. A unique aspect of the Android system design is that any application can start another application’s component. For example, if you want the user to capture a photo with the device camera, there's probably another application that does that and your application can use it, instead of developing an activity to capture a photo yourself. You don't need to incorporate or even link to the code from the camera application. Instead, you can simply start the activity in the camera application that captures a photo. When complete, the photo is even returned to your application so you can use it. To the user, it seems as if the camera is actually a part of your application. When the system starts a component, it starts the process for that application (if it's not already running) and instantiates the classes needed for the component. For example, if your application starts the activity in the camera application that captures a photo, that activity runs in the process that belongs to the camera pplication, not in your application's process. Therefore, unlike applications on most other systems, Android applications don't have a single entry point (there's no main() function, for example). Because the system runs each application in a separate process with file permissions that restrict access to other applications, your application cannot directly activate a component from another application. The Android s ystem, however, can. So, to activate a component in another application, you must deliver a message to the system that specifies your intent to start a particular component. The system then activates the component for you. Activating Components Three of the four component types—activities, services, and broadcast receivers—are activated by an asynchronous message called an intent. Intents bind individual components to each other at runtime (you can think of them as the messengers that request an action from other components), whether the component belongs to your application or another. An intent is created with an Intent object, which defines a message to activate either a specific component or a specific type of component—an intent can be either explicit or implicit, respectively.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Essay

Select one type of fossil fuel (Coal, Petroleum or Natural Gas) and one type of renewable energy resource (Solar power, Wind power, Hydropower, Geothermal power, or Biomass). Research and record the information in the chart. If you would prefer to use a different format to present this information, that is fine; however, you must include all the information on the chart in order to receive full credit for this assignment. The assignment is worth 60 points Chart question 1,3,5,7,8,9,10 = 4 points Chart questions 2,4 and 6 = 8 points each Concluding paragraph = 8 points If you would like to use a different resource than listed in the lesson, please contact your instructor for approval. The chart will expand as you type in it this will give you more room to enter information. Fossil Fuel: Petroleum fuel Describe this resource : A fossil fuel found in the earth used to power cars and power plants. Advantages of this resource (include at least two) 1. Theres an abundance of it. 2. very compact and easily portable source of energy Renewable resource: Solar Power Describe this resource: Energy harvested from the sun using solar pannels. 1. Much better for the enviroment that burning fossil fuels. 2. Very cost efficient, cheap energy. Disadvantages of this resource (include at least two) Petroleum fuel 1. Running out we are expected to run out of oil and petroleum fuel in the next 50 to 150 years. 2. Suspected to be a cause of global warming Solar power 1. only harvestable during the day time. 2. energy availability can be reduced by the weather. How does collecting this resource effect the environment? Petroleum fuel: It reduces the ammount left and takes from the earths natural resources. Solar energy: Has little to no effect. How does using this resource effect the environment? Petroleum fuel: Increases the green house gas emitions in the atmosphere. Solar energy: Help to create a more healthy enviroment for everyone. Compare the cost of both resources. Which is more expensive to create? Which is more expensive to use? Solar energy is more expensive to create because of the cost to build solar panels while petroleum just needs to be extracted fro the earth. However, solar energy is much cheaper over time when being used because it costs nothing and the petroleum fuel must be bought annually and paid for. What technology is involved in gathering or using this resource? The building of solar pannels and use of them to collect energy from the sun. And the pumps and items needed to extract fossil fuels from the earth. How do we use this resource to generate electricity? The solar panels convert solar power into energy while you burn petroleum fuel to create energy. What are the potential hazards associated with using and this resource? (include at least two) Toxic fumes from petroleum gas are lethal when concentrated in a small area as well as it is considered a key contributor to global warming. And I have had problems finding any real hazards other than the very small possibility that being near the solar panels for long periods of time can cause cancer. If this were to be our primary way for generating electricity what effect would this have on individuals and the environment? solar energy would create a much healthier enviroment for everyone. Petroleum would continue to destroy our enviroment as it is burned. Conclusion Paragraph In conclusion petroleum gas seems to be. Much more expensive over time as well as more harmful to the planet and enviroment. While solar energy seems to be much more cost efficient over time with just a few disadvantages as well as minimul health concerns. You have studied and researched different forms of renewable and nonrenewable resources. Based on your research and or the information you have leaned in lesson 3.05 and 3.06, what recommendations would you make to local officials regarding the types of resources that could be used to generate electricity? I would tell them that solar energy is a much healthier and less cost effective over time resource.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Nursing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Nursing - Research Paper Example For example, the abstract concludes by the statement that qualitative and quantitative differences in the sialylation of superficial glycolipids in CF epithelial cells may contribute to the colonization of CF lung by P.aeruginosa. This creates suspense on the reader and a desire to read more of the article. Introduction: The introduction provides sufficient information concerning the study since it identifies the significance of the study. This is portrayed in last paragraph where Saiman and Prince (1993) identify the purpose of the research as to prove that asioloGM1 is a receptor of P. aeruginosa and it plays a role in increasing the surface of CF respiratory epithelial cells (p. 1875). The introduction outlines the contents of the study, and it identifies various terms used in the study. Terms such as cystic fibrosis trans membrane and pulmonary failure are identified. The major weakness of the introduction is that it doesn’t identify the methods of conducting the study and the problem statement. The purpose of the study is clearly identified in the introduction that is to prove that asioloGM1 is a receptor of P. aeruginosa and it plays a role in the surface increase of CF respiratory epithelial cells. The authors have used the population and the variable of the title in the introduction and the body of the article. For instance, P. aeruginosa has been identified as the basis of the articles research in the introduction (Saiman and Prince, 1993, p.1876), and they give the properties of the medical condition. The authors have succeeded in highlighting how P. aeruginosa affects C.F epithelial cells by increasing their surface. Basing on this, the authors have succeeded in integrating the population and its variable in the text.... The article does not have a section labeled literature review, however, in the introduction part of the paper, the authors have used the term various â€Å"studies† to denote that they have used other sources in coming with the results of the study. A major weakness in this is that they do not mention the studies they are quoting in the introductory part; therefore it is difficult to know the source of their literature review. This article contains clearly labeled theoretical framework section and the framework seems appropriate since no framework from nursing libraries could be located to guide the production of this particular kind of study. From the study, there are three assumptions made by the two authors. The authors have not provided challenges and limitations they encountered while conducting this study. This study has a broad implication for many areas of nursing such as nursing education, administration and practice. In administration, the nursing fraternity should support the conduction of research in areas highlighted by the text, and nurses should be trained on how to deal with the mentioned medical condition. this is a well-structured article, with proper identification of the scope of the conducted research. The authors have partly achieved the objective of their study, which is to prove that asioloGM1 is a receptor of P.aeruginosa. The researchers have also properly used APA citation techniques, and all in text citations are in the references section and due to these facts, I will strongly recommend a colleague to read it.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Halloween (1978) Movie analysis Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Halloween (1978) Movie analysis - Assignment Example l prove that the director deliberately depersonalized the antagonist to make him for frightening as well as designed mise in scene in a way that the viewer would know that something is missing and anticipate the danger. To begin with, one might note that when Laurie entered the room, she wanted to close the window. There was no particular reason to do so, other than some subconscious fear of Michael whom she recently saw. However, after she noticed that he was standing in her backyard, she immediately closed the window for a particular reason which is not to let him in. If one carefully analyzes the way she performed the action in question, one will be able to see that she was quite desperate and vulnerable. Indeed, a woman with her constitution can hardly oppose a man who is taller and stronger than her. Later in the movie she is shown fighting him and Laurie is able to overcome only due to some lucky hits that she makes. By far, the part when she noticed a strange figure in the backyard should be seen as a rather frightening one: the mask that he is wearing contributes to demonalization of the character. There are several explanations for it. On the one hand, when one looks at the backyard, one does not expect to see something extraordinary. That is why a presence of an unknown man in the very middle of it seems to be a real shock to her. Indeed, Michael is positioned on the front frame and occupies the majority of the space. In addition to that mask makes him look like the villain of the movie and becomes a symbol of taking away his humanity. That is why this particular image make Michael so frightening. One of the first impressions that the scene in the bedroom has on the viewer is the emptiness of the room. In spite of the fact that it looks as an ordinary room, mise en scene is organized in such a way that the audience understanding that something is clearly missing. Keeping in mind that Laurie saw Michael several times before walking into the house, it is

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Rhetorical Analysis Essay #3 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Rhetorical Analysis #3 - Essay Example Due to it, readers are expected to trust the author, perceive him as reliable and informed. Moreover, appeal to pathos is mostly received by the choice of a language and the imagery used to describe the situation. Firstly, the author describes the situation in dark colors saying that workers are â€Å"forced to work making pennies per hour† and intimidated from expressing their will. (Ravisankar) Working extra hours and having no break is a norm for such people, including children. They work for pennies and their living conditions will continue to aggravate. Secondly, the choice of the emotionally –charged language, such as â€Å"oppression†, â€Å"abhorrent†, â€Å"extreme heat† helps to achieve the intended and cause empathy. (Ravisankar) Importantly, the topic itself touches upon such issues as poverty, unfair working conditions, and lack of justice that makes the rich become richer and the poor – poorer. Subsequently, readers are receptive to the message being sent as they sympathize with workers and feel sorry for them. In addition, the appeal to logos is also evident. The author states the problem is details, explaining what is wrong with sweatshops, who benefits from them, and what is their essence as a whole: â€Å"they are taking part in a phenomenon which has been described as â€Å"the race to the bottom†. (Ravisankar) Apart from that, Ravisankar suggests the possible solution that calls for participation of all the students eager to change the situation. As a whole, the argument looks credible and

Monday, August 26, 2019

Enron Scandal Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Enron Scandal - Research Paper Example This created financial discrepancies in the form of loans. Profits were artificially generated in order to mention the cash flows that came in the form of such loans. Another technique used by the organization was to speculate on the energy sector. It calculated the market prices for the energy sector. The importance of ethics has also been demonstrated in the aftermath of the scandal. Corporate organizations need to have sound policies that demonstrate commitment, responsibility, and good governance. Such a culture helps employees to work for the prosperity of the organization. The collapse of Enron triggered shockwaves that took time to heal. The legislation in that time period allowed audit firms to provide diverse services which helped in the creation of fraudulent or misleading financial reports and statements. A major problem which occurred was the fact that Enron could recruit auditors that were inclined to make favorable statements in the organizational interest. Corporate scandals have a negative impact on economic systems because they lead to drastic changes. The Enron scandal that erupted in 2001 shook the foundations of the American financial system. It had a catastrophic impact on the confidence of the market because the organization had been involved in fraudulent and malicious financial activities. The organization would become insolvent while its auditing partner, Arthur Anderson was also on the verge of bankruptcy. Enron was an organization that had been created in the mid-1980s. Jeffrey Skilling, Kenneth Lay, and Andrew Fastow were responsible for the scandal which involved the lack of proper financial reports and statements (Brewer & Hansen, 2002). Stock values were overstated in order to attract more cash flows. The Enron scandal had widespread repercussions on the entire financial system. The main executives received sentences while certain firms like Citigroup and Anderson Auditing had to pay heavy.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Honest Communication And Regulation Of Global Business Essay

Honest Communication And Regulation Of Global Business - Essay Example By its very nature, communication within a global context involves a vast range of activities, which must add up to determine the success levels or nature of challenges to be encountered in the course of doing business (Adekola & Sergi, 2007). Communication entails a thorough knowledge of the competitors, the interests of the clientele, cultural dynamics, market forces and other issues that relate to the efficiency of the business. Communication promotes the adoption of flexible strategies that are responsive to the unique situations and realities to be encountered at the market place. It involves an awareness of the macro-economic and micro-economic factors that impact on the core objectives of the business. The success levels of communication are influenced by the ability of the company to make accurate assessments and predictions of conditions on the global market. Wrong assumptions can lead to the development of poor strategies, which could cause major losses in profits and stabi lity of the company. It is important for global companies to seek for sufficient insights and resourceful information about the markets in order for them to manipulate the complex and diverse connections of the factors that determine the success levels of global businesses. ... Some of the reasons attributed to the success of Walmart in Mexico include awareness an awareness of the shopping culture of the country. Generally, Mexicans have a peculiar shopping culture that small packages and fresh products. On the other hand, regulation of global business basically involves the development of the most appropriate strategies that are consistent with the goals and objectives of the global companies. The art and science of regulating a global business is complex in the sense that it involves a balance between the internal objectives of the company and the unpredictable operating environment of global commerce. Regulation must necessarily involve the awareness of the variations in the nature of controls, restrictions, policy matters, legal restrictions, and other variables that apply within a global context. Some landmark cases of failure of renowned companies on the global market have been associated with limitations in the judgment of the management with regard to the most appropriate approaches. Inward looking strategies often incur challenges of cultural mismatch as the strategies fail to apply appropriately to particular situations. On the other hand, some of the notable successes on the global markets have been related to the ability of the companies to develop strategies that are responsive to the unique and varying demands of the markets. Markets do not bear similar characteristics. The preferences and trends on the western markets may exhibit significant variations with those in Asia. Cultural factors and other aspects of social realities determine these differences. By implication the marketing strategies and the nature of products designed for the western markets may have to be redesigned in order to

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Israel & US aid Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Israel & US aid - Essay Example The United States policy aims at promoting trade and cooperation with other nations. However, the United States has gone through economic downturn while the Chinese communist government has been rising rapidly (China Times, 2011). China is the greatest creditor to the United States and is uncomfortable with a single country’s global reserve currency. China believes the US should cut spending on social security and military. According to People’s daily, Beijing was angered by the decision to downgrade the US debt by S & P. The Chinese stepped up criticism against the United States and complained of the scheme of worldwide currencies that has been subjugated by the US dollar. The primary reason is the desire for Beijing to protect its financial interests (McGrego, 2012). According to a Chinese official Xinhua, the mounting dept and opinionated battles with US have dented the illustration of US overseas. The Chinese officials asserted that the US must cease its addiction to debt and learn to live within its means (China Times, 2011). This shall ensure safety of the Chinese assets in dollars. According Jamil, Beijing is unhappy with the checks subjected to the Chinese investors in the United States. China accuses the united states of checking the political background of Chinese investors. One of the Chinese officials, Wang, criticized the united states of discrimination and overspending on military at the expense of the economy (UPI, 2012). The Chinese policy aims at protecting its international interest like increasing its military presence and military budget. The United States has been opposing increased military spending in China. China is exerting influence in places it never affected before. For decades, China did business with regimes like Iran and Sudan which were unfriendly to the United States (McGregor, 2012). Presently the Chinese are doing business with America’s closest allies. China surpassed the United States to become the

Friday, August 23, 2019

Final Portfolio Project - Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Final Portfolio Project - - Term Paper Example However, Apple is currently facing plenty of HR problems. Change is inevitable for Apple in its HR management to maintain its supremacy in the corporate world, especially in the consumer electronics industry. This paper is written as a change management plan for Apple Inc. The problem, the recommended change, and the goals of the recommended change The major problem associated with Apple Inc. is its poor handling of HR management. Apple has the habit of asking the employees to work overtime most of the times. They disrespect the modern concepts such as work life balancing of the employees. â€Å"The work culture in Apple is demanding and the employees forced to work for 60-70 hours per week. In other words, in Apple there was always more work to do than the employees and hence Apple encourages workaholics† (Qumer, 2009, p.7). Apple has the habit of threatening its employees; they warn the employees that the company is interested in employability rather than employment security . Moreover, Apple Inc. prefers individual work over team work even though modern scientific business management principles strongly support team work for improving productivity and efficiency of the employees and the company. Apple is keeping tight secrecy while developing new products. Even Apple employees may not get much information about the company’s strategies to develop new products. In other words, Apple Inc. is not taking its employees in confidence. â€Å"Apple employees know something big is afoot when the carpenters appear in their office building. New walls are quickly erected. Doors are added and new security protocols put into place. Windows that once were transparent are now frosted. Other rooms have no windows at all. They are called lockdown rooms: No information goes in or out without a reason† (Lashinsky, 2012). Qumer (2009) mentioned that â€Å"Unfairness in promotions and overall treatment is a common complaint in Apple Company† (Qumer, 200 9, p.15).Thus the mutual trust between the employees and Apple Company are significantly damaged because of the poor HR strategies. Apple Inc. should implement drastic changes in its HR management. They should learn lessons from their past experiences. Nadler & Nadler (1997) pointed out that downsizing occurred in Apple Computers in the 80’s and 90’s because of the absence of real organizational change (p.11). In fact Apple Company was on the verge of destruction during this period because of the reluctance of the management in implementing changes. However, the management realised their mistakes and implemented drastic changes during the beginning of 2000 and tasted big success. The same situation is prevailing now. The loss of Steve has created a vacuum at the top of the company. Leadership problems are already visible in Apple Inc. under such circumstances; reluctance in implementing changes in HR management may bring more harm than good. Instead of threatening the employees with respect to employment security, Apple should show more readiness to hear the problems of the employees and settling it. They should give more respect to work-life balancing of the employees and avoid overtime works as much as possible. Discriminations while deciding promotions should be avoided as much as possible. Moreover, the company should take its employees in confidence. They should try to reduce the gap between the company and the employees. Instead of individual work, Apple should encourage teamwork more so that the stress levels of the employees

Thursday, August 22, 2019

BBUS 381 A1 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

BBUS 381 A1 - Essay Example Take an assumption that employees within a company have their own goals, and personalities. On this basis, employees cannot be perceived as part and parcel of the organization (Dressler, Reka and Cole, 2011). The principles of human resource management hold that the company should enact group and individual psychology for purposes of making these employees to strive in achieving the goals of the company. On this basis, human resource management aims at achieving the strategic goals of an organization by retaining, attracting and developing the talents of its employees. Dressler, Reka and Cole (2011) observe that human resource management acts as a link between the employees and the management of the organization. Human resource management helps an organization to develop strategies that will assess the various needs of its employees, and thereafter develop methods that will make these employees view their positions as part of their everyday responsibilities (Fudge, 2012). On this bas is, human resource management is a very important element in an organization because it creates loyalty amongst the employees of the organization improving their efficiency in their work place. ... For instance, the company has a human resource department, which is charged with the responsibility of identifying talented individuals to work within the company (Chang, 2012). The company has a human resource development center, which is tasked with the responsibility of training its employees on how to meet the objectives of the organization. The center is also responsible for developing the skills of the various employees that the company employs. This is for purposes of ensuring that these skills are effectively utilized within the company (Fudge, 2012). The human resource development center is also responsible for identifying the various needs of the company’s employees, and methods of satisfying those needs. This is because the aim of this process is to create loyalty amongst its employees; as a result there will be an increased efficiency in their roles. Chang (2012) observes that the company has a reward system, where employees are recognized for their performances, a nd rewarded by the organization. The rewards can either be monetary, or take the form of promotions within the organization. As a result of this policy, the employees of the organization are always working hard, with the hope of getting a promotion, or a reward. These human resource strategies by Samsung have made the company to be one of the leading electronic companies in the world. Part B: Samsung Group is a company from South Korea, with a global presence. The head quarter of the company is in Seoul, in a town referred to as Samsung. Samsung has an interest in the food processing sector, the electronics industry, insurance, and the retail industry. In 1987, the company operated under four business groups which are the Hansol

Morality in Politics Essay Example for Free

Morality in Politics Essay People are forced to face moral challenges in making day-to-day decisions. When it comes to benefitting individual and societal good, the great question of politics is raised: what is the right thing to do? In Sophocles’ Antigone, there is a dilemma whether to abide by the laws of the gods above the laws of the state. Antigone makes a decision that not only affects her future but the future of the state under her uncle’s rule. Antigone gains a high moral sense in that she followed the laws of the gods and therefore did the morally right choice going against state laws, either case can be deemed as morally correct. In this essay it will be argued that citizens should be free to disobey state laws when conscience dictates. Sophocles’ play enacts the moral conflict of power between the laws of the gods and the laws of state. He presents the reader with a dilemma involving religious rituals passed down in the family and a new law passed by a ruler of the state. Antigone and her uncle, Creon, have a different set of values. Creon, the ruler of Thebes, values the constant order of the state and the public good. Antigone values family and religion, and views these commitments as superior to the laws imposed by her uncle. She claims, there is an â€Å"unchangeable unwritten code of Heaven,† (Sophocles, Antigone, 17) and she decides to act against the laws of her uncle to fulfill the laws of the gods, by giving her brother a proper burial ritual against Creon’s will. Antigone considers her uncle’s laws as sacrilege. Creon thought that his decision would bring stability to his state, as he claimed that â€Å"by corruption few men thrive and many come to mischief,† (Sophocles, Antigone, 12). Creon places the ‘polis’ above family and religious values and disregards the values that Antigone holds sacred. Sophocles positions Antigone as being the heroine of the play and allows her to justify her decisions, with the taking of her own life Antigone made a statement and accentuates the power she held and that Creon lacked. In the end, Creon is left with feelings of regret and no family, thus punished by the gods for not abiding by their laws. Antigone believed that her rights were not given to her by Creon but rather given to her by the gods. She was only doing what she thought was morally right. Antigone is a religious being and clearly values the gods higher than the state; she is willing to face the consequences. Antigone was willing to â€Å"meet with nothing more grievous, at the worst, than death, with honour,† (Sophocles, Antigone, 4) she courageously fulfilled her duties as a religious being. Many people would applaud Antigone’s bravery, for any private interest should be allowed to challenge the public good. In doing so, I believe that those private interests could eventually turn into a public interest. In the play, a prophet visits Creon to warn him of the consequences that have been brought about from his unjust laws. If it had not have been for Antigone publicly objecting to Creon’s law, it would probably not have been such a big issue that brought the concern of others. Antigone allowed for others to question Creon’s law and debate if it is morally right to go against the laws of the gods. Publicly refusing to follow a law brings attention to an issue that otherwise would have been ignored. One great example in our society is during the Civil Rights era; Martin Luther King Jr. ’s actions brought great attention to the issue of racial segregation. He believed that it was right to openly break a law that was not supposed to be a law at all. His actions although non-violent broke many laws that were made to impede success among the African American population in the U. S. He believed that by publicly and consciously breaking the law exposes brutality and promotes participation. In doing so, the people against the law were perceived as being brave and those watching were forced to question what was just. When issues become public and catch the interest of the majority of the people in the ‘polis’, the government is forced to do something about it. Creon responded with a stern and much too harsh punishment that led to the death of his niece, son and wife but if Antigone would not have contested his law he could have eventually reached complete domination of political power. The general population supported Antigone but they were too afraid to say anything until they finally felt that something must be done. Creon was running a totalitarian government and was corrupting the state. He was unable to see how unjust his law was until others brought it to his attention and tried to convince him that his use of power was wrong. Antigone’s defying actions instilled courage in the people to also speak against their ruler. It might be objected that when someone disobeys state laws whenever their conscience dictates they are only helping themselves, the person breaking the law is not thinking about the common good but rather fulfilling their own good or promoting anarchy. Civil disobedience may seem reasonable when we consider Martin Luther King Jr. ’s situation but it may not always be driven with good intentions. By disobeying, regardless of good or bad intentions, they are hurting the stability of the state. Creon argues, â€Å"Obedience is due to the state’ officer in small and great, just and unjust commandments†¦ (Sophocles, Antigone, 26). † Creon did not bother to judge his laws as just or unjust, he simply did what he considered was good for the state. It is thought that if people continue to please themselves in breaking the laws of the state that they will eventually break every law and lose all respect for the state. Civil disobedience may not always serve the public good and only serve to undermine order. Breaking a law weakens the state and it’s order, it promotes anarchy and disrespects authority. It should not be encouraged or tolerated. It is a civic virtue to abide by the laws of the state it is what leads to its success and stability. By breaking the law Antigone was faced with death, she claimed that she was honoring the gods and that they would honor her in the end. But one must question if honor is worth the permanence of death. Many people feel so strongly about their opinions that they are wiling to die just as Antigone did in Sophocles’ play. One notable person in history is Socrates; he willingly faced all punishments administered to him. He claimed to have had a contract with his state of Athens that obliged him to accept punishments for taking advantage of the state in the first place. This shows that even though Socrates may have broken some law, he still held respect for the state. Not every person that breaks a law is completely recalcitrant. Like Socrates, those who fight for civil rights and follow what they believe to be morally correct are aware of their wrongdoings and make it a statement when they finally submit to the law. They are submitting to punishments even if they are deemed unjust only to prove to the state that their morals are important and can withstand any punishment. In facing moral challenges one is often forced to face it is always difficult to decipher what is right and what is wrong. Everyone has different values and obligations. Here, Antigone’s values outweighed Creon’s overwhelmingly unjust laws. One must always question what is more important and find a balance between the two. Civil disobedience is allowed when the conscience dictates in situations that lead to a greater good. Not all private interests are egocentric some may also reflect the interest of the general population. Antigone, although harshly punished just as Martin Luther King, Jr. and Socrates were as well, have all rose among the common people and proved to be great. They encompassed a passion and bravery for their beliefs that was able to attract attention to conflicts in the law. Without their brave actions the state would not have been open to change and reach a new level of stability.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Renal Excretion of Paracetamol | Experiment

Renal Excretion of Paracetamol | Experiment Paracetamol, known as acetaminophen in the USA, is one of the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic drugs available over-the-counter. Its common name derives from the full chemical name: para-acetyl-amino-phenol, with the chemical formula C8H9NO2Â  and a molecular weight of 151.17. Paracetamol does not have any significant anti-inflammatory action and therefore cannot be accurately described as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), as was once thought. Its mechanism of action is still poorly understood but some studies have suggested that it inhibits a variant of the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme COX-1, which has been designated COX-3 (Swierkosz et al., 2002). Paracetamol acts mainly in the central nervous system and endothelial cells, rather than in platelets and immune cells. Boutaud and colleagues (2002) hypothesised that this may be explained by the high levels of peroxides found in the latter cell types, which inhibit the action of paracetamol. There has been some debate on the subject, with other researchers proposing an inhibitory action against COX-2 (Graham Scott, 2005). Further research is required to fully elucidate the mechanism of action at the molecular level. Following oral administration and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, paracetamol enters the blood and is distributed throughout the body. It is metabolised by enzymes in the hepatocytes of the liver and the majority is converted to inactive metabolites by conjugation with sulphate or glucuronide. This is then filtered out of the blood by the kidneys and into the urine, via active renal tubular secretion. A small portion of paracetamol remains unaltered and passes into the urine via glomerular filtration and passive absorption (Morris Levy, 1984). There is also a small proportion of the paracetamol that is metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, which results in the formation of cysteine or glutathione conjugates and mercapturic acid conjugates. These products of oxidative metabolism are also excreted renally (Andrews et al. 1976). Paracetamol has a low therapeutic index, so the therapeutic dose is very close to the toxic dose. Toxicity can occur following a single large dose (>10g) or with chronic lower doses (4-5g/d) and is usually seen as hepatotoxicity, which can result in death within several days (Wikipedia). Toxicity occurs when the enzymes responsible for catalysing sulphate and glucuronide conjugation become saturated, forcing metabolism to be increasingly dependent upon the cytochrome P450 system. This results in formation of a toxic metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzo-quinone imine (NAPQI), which is normally mopped up by binding to the sulphydryl group of glutathione to form inactive conjugates and mercapturic acid. Toxicity occurs when the glutathione supply becomes exhausted and NAPQI binds indiscriminately to molecules within the cell, such as membranes, to cause cell damage and death, seen as acute hepatic necrosis. Major pathway for normal metabolism Minor pathway via cytochrome P450 system produces toxic metabolite (NAPQI), shown in red. Normally this is detoxified by binding to glutathione. Toxicity occurs when pathways 1 and 2 are overloaded and NAPQI binds to molecules of the cell, causing damage. Modified from Rang et al. 1995. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the renal excretion of paracetamol, by measuring the levels of paracetamol metabolites in human urine over 6 hours following an oral dose of 500mg. The total excretion will be assessed using the spectrophotometric method. From this data the elimination rate constant (KE) and the half-life (T1/2) will be calculated. Qualitative analysis of the various metabolites will be conducted using appropriate chemical identification techniques. METHOD A standard stock solution of paracetamol was prepared at 1mg/cm3 and dilutions were made to give a range of known concentrations. 1 cm3 of the paracetamol solution was added to 1 cm3 blank urine and 4 cm3 4M HCl, and mixed thoroughly. A blank duplicate was also prepared, using water instead of urine. After an hour in a boiling water bath the tubes were cooled and water added, up to 10 cm3. 1 cm3 of this hydrolysed urine solution was added to 10 cm3of colour forming solution, mixed and allowed to stand for 40 minutes. The absorbance of each solution was measured, using the spectrophotometer, zeroing the instrument using the drug free urine sample in between solutions. This produced the readings for the calibration curve. The collected timed urine samples were then processed in the same way, adding 1 cm3 water instead of paracetamol solution. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Known concentrations of paracetamol underwent spectrophotometry to measure the absorbance at 620nm. These results were used to produce a calibration curve (figure 3). The timed urine samples were then analysed following the same protocol and the absorbance at 620nm was used, in conjunction with the calibration curve to ascertain the concentration of paracetamol in the urine. Unfortunately, half of the samples produced absorbances outside the range of the calibration curve. Because this curve is non-linear, extrapolation and dilution cannot be used to accurately deduce the concentration of paracetamol in the urine. For the purposes of this report the concentration for these samples has been declared as ‘greater than 800ug/cm3’. This is not very satisfactory and further experiments must be done to extend the range of the calibration curve to the maximum absorbancy of the timed samples. The values of KE and T1/2 have been calculated to demonstrate the procedure, but are ina ccurate and will need revising once accurate concentrations have been established form the calibration curve. Table 1: Timed urine sample Mean absorbance 620nm Conc. ug/cm3 Vol. Urine (ml) Total drug (ug of paracetamol) Excretion rate mg/h 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 hour 0.256 192 245 47040 47 2 hours 1.918 >800 50 40000 40 3 hours 1.769 >800 38 30400 30.4 4 hours 1.028 >800 55 44000 44 5 hours 0.349 246 135 33210 33.2 6 hours 0.255 192 160 30720 30.7 Table 1 contains the absorbance results of the timed urine samples and the deduced concentration of paracetamol in the urine, as well as the hourly excretion rate. The total amount of paracetamol excreted over the 6 hour period was 225.3mg, which is 45% of the orally administered dose. Due to problems discussed above, this is an underestimate of the true percentage of dose excreted renally, which has been found to be 55-70% by other studies (Steventon et al., 1996). When log of the excretion rate (equivalent to total drug excreted per hour) is plotted against time, a linear plot should be achieved, from which KE can be estimated. This is shown in Figure 4, but is likely to need revising. The slope of this straight line equates to : KE /2.303, which gives a value for KE of 0.094. Using the formula: T1/2 =0.692/ KE , the value of T1/2 = 7.36 hours. This states that it takes the body 7.36 hours to excrete half of the drug administered. This is longer than the 1-4 hours usually quoted for paracetamol (Rang et al. 1995), and is not surprising given the underestimation of the paracetamol urine concentration. With proper calibration, this would be expected to decrease to nearer the previously found results. There were no results for the qualitative studies for metabolite composition, but it would be expected that sulphate and glucuronide conjugates would constitute the majority of the sample, with a smaller quantity of unchanged paracetamol, cysteine/glutathione and mercapturic acid metabolites. These results only represent one individual on one day and replications of this experiment are crucial. Nutritional status, recent alcohol consumption, ethnic background, concurrent drug usage and illness must all be taken into account as factors that may affect paracetamol metabolism and excretion (Riordan Williams, 2002, Patel Tang, 1992). Further analysis of paracetamol excretion Hepatotoxicity and drug interactions Table 2 shows how concurrent use of phenobarbital, an anti-epileptic drug, can increase the severity of liver damage caused by paracetamol administration and its subsequent metabolism. Table 2: Effect of Phenobarbital on paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity Treatment Dose of Paracetamol (mg/kg) Severity of liver necrosis None3751-2+ Phenobarbital3752-4+_________ This occurs due to metabolism of phenobarbital by enzymes of the P450 cytochrome system, which results in upregulation of their production. As explained in the introduction (see fig. 2), P450 enzymes also metabolise paracetamol, to form the toxic metabolite NAPQI. This is normally a minor pathway but as the amount of P450 enzymes available increases, the activity of this pathway also increases. This results in a larger than normal amount of NAPQI, which is mopped up and inactivated by glutathione. Glutathione supplies will eventually run out, which occurs sooner if the person is malnourished. When this happens the toxic metabolite binds to cell components, causing necrosis. To prevent this occurring, such as in cases of overdose, N-acetylcysteine can be given (Routledge et al., 1998), which is required for glutathione synthesis and helps to boost it. This allows a greater amount of the toxic metabolite to be mopped up and reduces cell damage. Paracetamol metabolism following hepatotoxicity Table 3: Plasma paracetamol concentrations (ug/cm3) PatientsPlasma paracetamol4 hrs after12hrs after Half life (h)ingestioningestion _______________________________________________________________ no liver damage (18)2.9 +/= 0.3163 +/=20 29.5 +/=6 liver damage (23) 7.2+/= 0.7296 +/= 26 124 +/=22___ Table 3 shows that, in a study, the ability of patients with liver damage to eliminate paracetamol from the blood is much decreased, compared to healthy people. This is seen by the prolonged half-life and the high levels of paracetamol in the plasma. The plasma level does come down by 12 hrs, which indicates that there is enough functional liver reserve to metabolise some of the drug, but the level is still very high. To ascertain whether it is just conjugation that is affected, or whether all the pathways are affected equally it would be necessary to quantify the levels of different metabolites in the blood and urine. As conjugation is responsible for the majority of metabolism, damage to all systems will still show up as affecting conjugation the most. In theory reduced clearance of a substance is useful for monitoring the severity of liver damage, but in the case of paracetamol it would be unwise as it could potentiate the hepatotoxic effects and worsen the liver condition. It is also unnecessary as there are already a number of reliable blood tests for liver function and damage. REFERENCES Andrews, R. S., Bond, C. C., Burnett, J., Saunders, A. Watson, K. 1976 Isolation and identification of paracetamol metabolites. J Int Med Res 4, 34-9. Boutaud, O., Aronoff, D. M., Richardson, J. H., Marnett, L. J. Oates, J. A. 2002 Determinants of the cellular specificity of acetaminophen as an inhibitor of prostaglandin H(2) synthases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99, 7130-5. Graham, G. G. Scott, K. F. 2005 Mechanism of action of paracetamol. Am J Ther 12, 46-55. Morris, M. E. Levy, G. 1984 Renal clearance and serum protein binding of acetaminophen and its major conjugates in humans. J Pharm Sci 73, 1038-41. Patel, M., Tang, B. K. Kalow, W. 1992 Variability of acetaminophen metabolism in Caucasians and Orientals. Pharmacogenetics 2, 38-45. Rang, H. P., Dale, M.M., Ritter, J.M. 1995 Pharmacology: Churchill Livingstone. Riordan, S. M. Williams, R. 2002 Alcohol exposure and paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Addict Biol 7, 191-206. Routledge, P., Vale, J. A., Bateman, D. N., Johnston, G. D., Jones, A., Judd, A., Thomas, S., Volans, G., Prescott, L. F. Proudfoot, A. 1998 Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning. No need to change current guidelines to accident departments. Bmj 317, 1609-10. Steventon, G. B., Mitchell, S. C. Waring, R. H. 1996 Human metabolism of paracetamol (acetaminophen) at different dose levels. Drug Metabol Drug Interact 13, 111-7. Swierkosz, T. A., Jordan, L., McBride, M., McGough, K., Devlin, J. Botting, R. M. 2002 Actions of paracetamol on cyclooxygenases in tissue and cell homogenates of mouse and rabbit. Med Sci Monit 8, BR496-503. Wikipedia.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland

Volcanic Eruptions in Iceland Take-home Test Describe the three different types of volcanic eruptions that have given rise to Iceland’s volcanic landforms. Effusive: An effusive eruption is a volcanic eruption characterized by the flow of lava onto the ground. Lava flows generated by effusive eruptions vary in shape, thickness, length, and width depending on the type of lava that erupted, the type of discharge, the slope of the ground over which the lava travels, and the duration of the volcanic eruption. Explosive: This is a violent, explosive type of eruption. This is a result of when sufficient gas has dissolved under pressure within a viscous magma, such that the discharged lava violently bubbles up into volcanic ash as pressure is suddenly lowered at the vent. Explosive eruptions can send rocks, dust, gas and lava fragments into the atmosphere. A cloud is then created which then collapses, creating a flow of hot volcanic matter (gas + rocks). Mixed: This eruption is a mixture of both lava and tephra (fragmental material produced by a volcanic eruption). Describe the characteristics of a Tuya. How does this acquire its distinctive shape? A Tuyais a flat-topped, steep-sided  volcano  formed when  lava  erupts through a thick  glacier  or  ice sheet. Such volcanic formations are restricted to regions which were covered by  glaciers  and had volcanic activity during the same period. Their formation is due to lava that erupts under a glacier and cools very quickly. It cannot travel far, so it piles up into a steep-sided hill. Define the term jà ¶kulhlaup and explain its significance to Iceland. Jà ¶kulhlaups in Iceland may originate from marginal or subglacial sources of water melted by atmospheric processes, permanent geothermal heat or volcanic eruptions. Glacier-volcano interactions produce meltwater that either drains toward the glacier margin or accumulates in subglacial lakes. Iceland is a unique and valuable study-site for glacio-volcanic interactions. The jà ¶kulhlaups can be seen as modern analogues of past mega floods on the earth and their exploration may improve understanding of ice-volcano processes on other planets. Jo ¨kulhlaups, both those draining meltwater stored in subglacial lakes and meltwater produced during a volcanic eruption, have significant landscaping potential: they erode large canyons and transport enormous quantities of sediment and icebergs over vast outwash plains. What are the origins of Icelandic river waters? Describe the relevant main characteristics. Icelandic rivers are of three general types: The glacial-fed rivers which carry large quantities of fine silt and are typically brown in colour. Their runoff, being conditioned by ice melt, is high in the summer and low in the winter. Glacial rivers are close to freezing at source but warm up considerably in lowland areas. They typically divide into many interlinked distributaries which constantly change direction. The direct runoff rivers; are relatively clear. They are characteristic of old basaltic areas where the bedrock is impermeable. They have their greatest flows in the spring during snowmelt and in autumn following heavy rains. Water temperature in these streams generally follows the air temperature. The spring-fed stream drains areas covered by permeable post-glacial lava fields. In these zones the ground is more porous; therefore water emerges in springs at lower levels to supply the rivers with a constant flow of generally clear water. These spring-fed rivers have a water temperature of 3–5 °C at source and never freeze over at that point. Their beds and banks are usually stable. Explain the following terms: Tephrochronology: A geo-chronological technique that uses discrete layers of tephravolcanic ash from a single eruption to create a chronological framework in which archaeological records can be placed. Cryptotephra: Very few studies have looked in detail at the sedimentation and distribution of cryptotephra deposits within sequences and, more importantly, the criteria for defining the correct stratigraphic position of the volcanic event. Cryptotephra is a tephra-derived glass shard which is not that visible to the naked human eye since they are less than 125micrometers. Isopachs: Lines on a map or diagrams which connect points beneath which a particular stratum or group of strata has the same thickness. One measure used to tackle the problem of soil erosion is re-seeding with appropriate floral species. What characteristics of a plant would make it suitable for such a purpose? Soil stabilizing plants range in size, root type (ideally long), degree of ground cover (fast growth) and visual appeal, and selecting a variety of plants is essential for combating the impact of wind and water erosion. Low plants provide ground cover from wind, while higher trees slow down the force of rain before it hits the ground or more delicate ground cover plants. Once plants are established, their life cycles help return nutrients to the soil to encourage future plant growth (important to have an easy seed dispersal process as well) and maintain adequate moisture levels to avoid soil drying or oversaturation. Describe one method that could be used to measure the profile of a beach. Select sampling points for beach profiles across the width of the beach. At each sample point in turn, place a pole at the start and finish. The first point should ideally be the low tide mark, or as close to it. The next step is to note the main changes in slope angle up the beach, each change is to inform the ‘sections for the profile. For each change in slope, use a clinometer to take a bearing to record the slope angle (It is important to ensure that the bearing is taken from a point on the pole that corresponds with the eye level of the person using the clinometer). Measure the distance along the ground of the section, and record this information alongside the slope angle. Repeat processes for each break in slope that you have identified. Explain the following: Lateral moraines: Parallel ridges of debris deposited along the sides of a glacier. The unconsolidated debris can be deposited on top of the glacier by frost shattering of the valley walls or tributary streams flowing into the valley. Because lateral moraines are deposited on top of the glacier, they do not experience the postglacial erosion of the valley floor and therefore, as the glacier melts, lateral moraines are usually preserved as high ridges. Lateral moraines stand high because they protect the ice under them from the elements, causing it to melt or sublime less than the uncovered parts of the glacier. Multiple lateral moraines may develop as the glacier advances and retreats. Kettle Lake: Kettles are depressions left behind after partially-buried ice blocks melt. Kettle Lake describes the way the lake basin was formed. While glaciers were forming, a block of ice broke of, and found a uniform position. As the glacier continued to melt, the debris from the glacier (soil, rocks, stones, gravel, etc.) filled in around the block of ice. When the block of ice finally melted, all the debris surrounding it fell into the hole, creating the kettle type basin, which when filled with water, became a lake as we know it. Outwash plain: is a flat region formed of glacial sediments deposited by melt water outwash at the terminus of a glacier. Explain the presence of wave-cut platforms in areas of Iceland presently distant from the coast. A wave-cut platform is the narrow flat area often found at the base of a sea cliff or along the shoreline of a lake, bay, or sea that was created by the erosion of waves. Wave-cut platforms are often most obvious at low tide when they become visible as huge areas of flat rock. In Iceland, some cases, the rock is relatively easy to erode. Sea-level changes have left a stamp on the coast, and wave-cut platforms can be seen in many around Iceland. Distinguish between mafic and felsic lava: These words are used to indicate the chemical composition of silicate minerals, magmas, and igneous rocks. Mafic is used for silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which are relatively high in the heavier elements. The minerals are usually dark in color and have relatively high specific gravities and also represent material which is newly differentiated from the upper mantle. Felsic is used for silicate minerals, magmas, and rocks which have a lower percentage of the heavier elements, and are correspondingly enriched in the lighter elements, such as silicon and oxygen. Felsic minerals are usually light in color and have specific gravities. The most common felsic rock is granite, which represents the purified end product of the earths internal differentiation process. What is the nominal fix accuracy of a GPS? Why can a DGPS improve this nominal accuracy? The nominal fix accuracy of a GPS is of 100 meters with a selective availability enabled on the system. The GPS has a number of small errors (e.g signal delay), so a DGPS can be used to improve nominal accuracy since it transmits messages from local stations that are connected to satellites, producing better and accurate data readings. In cartographic terms, explain why the datum used by a GPS navigation set must be the same as for the reference chart being used. A datum is a set of reference points on the Earths surface against which their position can be associated with a model of the shape of the Earth to define a geodetic coordinate system. Horizontal datum is used to describe a point in latitude and longitude. A vertical datum measures elevations or depths. Because the Earth is an imperfect ellipsoid, all localized datums can give a more accurate representation of the area which is being covered than the latest version of the World Geodetic System datum (84). Marie Claire Attard Bason

Monday, August 19, 2019

Electric Vehicles: :: Essays Papers

Electric Vehicles: Current Uses: Currently electric vehicles are slowing becoming popular with some already on show room floors. Furthermore, there are many enthusiasts and groups that have really been pushing their use. Tough these cars do not share the same performance qualities of some gas-powered cars; the current technology has been rapidly catching up. Hybrid vehicles have offered in some ways the best of both worlds. The cars are environmentally friendly yet offer the power and distance capabilities of other cars on the market. Furthermore, there have been many ways of supplying electricity to the cars including home-rechargeable batteries and hydrogen power. Electric vehicles are a definite possibility for the future because they have the lowest emissions while driving. Groups like E-Vermont are independent interest groups that have gotten together to try to use this technology and increase other’s understanding of it. These interest groups are becoming very popular and many of them have found ways to transform normal automobiles into electric vehicles. Furthermore, groups like this get together and have a race to showcase the alternate fuel technologies that exist in the world today. The most well-known of these races is the Tour-De-Sol. This competition and festival highlights every form of transportation that promises less gas or oil use. This event helps to show the progress that has been made in electric vehicle technology. Many of the people who are part of this use electric vehicles in one form or the other. Some of them use a hybrid form while others stay strictly to a battery-charged electric vehicle. Most people do not know but electric vehicles are out there for people to use. They have not yet replaced the internal-combustion engine as the vehicle of choice for most but electric power does have its place in the world. Electric Vehicles are focused into two basic categories: niche markets and environmentally conscious households. These are both small parts of the economy but it is still important to note that they have been successful in some areas. There is a good chance that growth can occur from these two arenas, but only time will tell. The niche market includes vehicles such as golf carts, city municipal vehicles and warehouse vehicles. A niche market is formed when the dominating technology, though possibly superior, cannot meet special requirement. In these cases it is the pollution caused by gas-powered vehicles that is such as problem.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Trapped by Society in John Updikes A&P Essay -- A&P Essays

Trapped by Society in John Updike's A&P      Ã‚  Ã‚   People often take their place in society for granted. They accept that position into which they are born, grow up in it, and pass that position on to their children. This cycle continues until someone is born who has enough vision to step out of his circle and investigate other ways of life in which he might thrive. One such person is embodied in the character of Sammy in A&P, by John Updike. Sammy is the narrator of the story and describes an incident in the store where he encounters a conflict between the members of two completely different worlds the world that he was born into and the world of a girl that captures his mind. Through his thoughts, attitudes, and actions, Sammy shows that he is caught between the two worlds of his customers at the A&P.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy's thoughts, as told to the reader in his narration, betray a deep understanding of the people he comes in contact with. When the girls walked into the store, he began to describe not only their looks, but also their attitudes and personalities without ever speaking to them. The one who held his attention was also the one he named "Queenie". On page one he says, She was the queen. She kind of led them, the other two peeking around and making their shoulders round. Sammy understood that she was the one in charge, and by saying that the other two made their shoulders round he showed that he realized their passivity was by choice; they followed her by their own wills.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy also understood how the "regulars" of the A&P thought and reasoned. He correctly interpreted the customers’ reactions to the girls, saying, "A few houseslaves in pin curlers even looked round after pushing their cart... ...ed what he did for them and wanting their appreciation for his attempt to disassociate himself from the people in the store. He called them "his" girls, trying to bring himself to their level in the social scheme as he saw it (3).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy was indeed caught between the two worlds that collided one day in the A&P, and he chose to pursue the one that was not his own. He was able to do this when others were not because he understood both worlds, his attitude toward each were completely different, and his actions were drastic enough to cut him free from the bonds that his world had on him. With two paths to choose from and only one to follow, Sammy took the path less traveled in that small town by the sea. He was, to use his own analogy, a wolf in sheep's clothing. Works Cited Updike, J. A&P. 17 January, 2004. Trapped by Society in John Updike's A&P Essay -- A&P Essays Trapped by Society in John Updike's A&P      Ã‚  Ã‚   People often take their place in society for granted. They accept that position into which they are born, grow up in it, and pass that position on to their children. This cycle continues until someone is born who has enough vision to step out of his circle and investigate other ways of life in which he might thrive. One such person is embodied in the character of Sammy in A&P, by John Updike. Sammy is the narrator of the story and describes an incident in the store where he encounters a conflict between the members of two completely different worlds the world that he was born into and the world of a girl that captures his mind. Through his thoughts, attitudes, and actions, Sammy shows that he is caught between the two worlds of his customers at the A&P.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy's thoughts, as told to the reader in his narration, betray a deep understanding of the people he comes in contact with. When the girls walked into the store, he began to describe not only their looks, but also their attitudes and personalities without ever speaking to them. The one who held his attention was also the one he named "Queenie". On page one he says, She was the queen. She kind of led them, the other two peeking around and making their shoulders round. Sammy understood that she was the one in charge, and by saying that the other two made their shoulders round he showed that he realized their passivity was by choice; they followed her by their own wills.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy also understood how the "regulars" of the A&P thought and reasoned. He correctly interpreted the customers’ reactions to the girls, saying, "A few houseslaves in pin curlers even looked round after pushing their cart... ...ed what he did for them and wanting their appreciation for his attempt to disassociate himself from the people in the store. He called them "his" girls, trying to bring himself to their level in the social scheme as he saw it (3).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Sammy was indeed caught between the two worlds that collided one day in the A&P, and he chose to pursue the one that was not his own. He was able to do this when others were not because he understood both worlds, his attitude toward each were completely different, and his actions were drastic enough to cut him free from the bonds that his world had on him. With two paths to choose from and only one to follow, Sammy took the path less traveled in that small town by the sea. He was, to use his own analogy, a wolf in sheep's clothing. Works Cited Updike, J. A&P. 17 January, 2004.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Summary of Project Feasibility

Summary of Project Feasibility Assessing the feasibility of Expanding Services (Revenue Increase), Frequent Shopper Program (Revenue Increase), and Increasing Efficiency enhancements are important for Kudler Fine Foods that will determine the success for the project. A â€Å"feasibility study focuses on helping answer the essential question of should we proceed with the proposed project idea? † (Hofstrand & Holz – Clause, 2009). Operational, technical, and economic feasibilities are what specify the project feasibility analysis. Operationally, the Expanding Services will increase the loyalty and profitability of consumers by providing contest, and cooking classes. This program should integrate into the existing workflow without possessing to make any type of tremendous problems to the operations. The extra advertising should help Kudler Fine Foods revenue to increase by drawing in more consumers. The Frequent Shopper Program would only require little user training therefore, no major issues of computer illiteracy should occur. Frequent Shopper Program will provide high value incentives through a partnership with loyalty points program (Virtual Organization, Kudler Fine Foods, Sales and Marketing). This will enhance the attitudes at the point of sales. Kutler Fine Foods already use a POS server that would be a staging ground for the Frequent Shopper database. Kudler’s operations are to increase efficiency by benchmarking Nordstrom department stores. Employee training programs and integration of new software system will facilitate the effort. Increasing efficiency has developed supplier relations program and has solicited the help of marketing to help roll out the program. The various types of proposed requirements that should be taken into consideration are the hardware and software. Hardware relates to the development of the system and software is for the information database and tracking. TPS/Transaction processing system will capture and record information about the transactions that take place at Kudler’s. MIS/Management information systems will produce reports that management needs for planning. Executive information systems will provide the executives information that will be used for monitoring the competitive environment. Centralize management system hardware, front end web server, loyalty card and store server hardware will help assist the â€Å"Frequent Shopper Program. Economic feasibility is the cost/benefit analysis or CBA. CBA helps to give the project team/management in determining whether or not the proposed program is beneficial to the organization. Because the programs are not going to cause a dramatic increase in cost the company will benefit and be very successful. Reference Hofstrand, d. & Holz – Clause, M. (2009,). What is Feasibility Study? Retrieved April, 2010, from extension. iastate. edu

A Review About HR Department Architecture Essay

At its petroleum,endowment direction( TM ) is a affair of expecting the demand for human and so puting out programs to run into it1 ( Cappelli, P. 2008 ) . In this short essay, I will be composing a response to the above proposition. Although the construct of TM late instigated in the current economic conditions, it is instead apparent that in most administrations where HR section fails to follow the rules and patterns of TM, it comes up short in footings of corporate public presentation when compared to a company that patterns TM( this impression is clearly supported in fig 1 with mention to appendix 2.0 ). NHS for illustration is presently at its early phase to implant TM. It has placed importance upon constructing an grasp upon planetary best pattern and orienting it for effectual application. The research conducted by hired institute of forces and development ( CIPD ) claimed that although, ‘It is recognised that while constructing a robust and systematic methodological analysis is critical in deriving ownership from stakeholders, the existent benefits will merely come through effecting cultural alteration evidenced in the acceptance of a endowment mentality † ( CIPD, 2006 ) .Refer to appendix 1 for full elaborate study. There are a scope of jobs company faces with work force direction. This include ; deficit of endowment, cleavage of work force, direction of hazard and uncertainness etc. With an effectual TM system, company can cut down these jobs. As antecedently stated, the most common response to TM is to expect no demands at all ; do no programs for turn toing them rendering the termendowment directionmeaningless. The 2nd most common exist amongst large companies. They rely onstructure-centricattack with complex and bureaucratic theoretical accounts which in the current epoch of volatile environment had failed due to inaccuracy and high cost. The new attack to TM takes into history the great uncertainness faced by concern in current Labour market ( Cappelli, P. 2008 ) . As such, my response will germinate around the best practices/new attack available to any administration to accomplish excellence in its endowment direction attack i.e. a suggested solutions to the HR crisis with respects to pull offing its work force. First, I am traveling to touch on therecruitment/developmentfacet of TM2. Recruiting was focused through assorted communicating channels such as classified adverts, college arrangement offices, internal occupation station systems etc. All of which created a job of penchant and geographical restriction. However, due to technological promotion, companies have been able to reach wider audience of endowments that meet its demands. An illustration is ( the taking supplier of online callings and recruitment resources committed to linking administrations with persons ) .3 Puting merely nevertheless, it is more cost effectual to develop and retain direction endowment than enrolling from external markets. Research at Ernst and immature estimated the mean cost of replacing at $ 1 million ( Atkins R. et Al. 2004 ) . As a consequence, companies should endeavor to develop and retain staffs instead than external recruits. Although most companies preponderantly smaller one time would reason that provided an employee had been trained, what is to maintain such employee from running to other companies with better offers? Well my reply to this would be there is no barrier forestalling employees from taking trades that will advance their calling waies. In fact surveies by the confer withing house Watson Wyatt reported that, people who are late trained decamp from the administration to do more efficient usage of those accomplishments ( Cappelli, P. 2008 ) . However, Peter Cappelli in his ‘new manner of believing about TM theoretical account ‘ tackles the hazard involved in developing employees to a grade of satisfaction. He developed what he calls aproposition kindred to just-in-time constructi.e. a talent-on-demand model. Within this model are four rules. Thebrand or purchase ruleclearly saying that, an optimum attack would be to utilize a combination of internal and external recruits. The challenge would be calculating out precisely how much of each to utilize. P. Cappelli recommended that administrations should purely remain off from utilizing long term prognosis as the volatile market renders it inaccurate. Rather, it should concentrate on short term demand for talent4.The 2nd rule claims that houses needed toadapt to uncertainness in Talent Demand ;one manner is to interrupt up development plans into shorter units instead than set direction trainees through a 3 twelvemonth functional plan. The 3rd rule is to better thereturn investing in developing employees ;one manner is to necessitate employees to portion in cost of development through voluntary hours i.e. hours spent on preparation will non increase employees payout. Employers have besides been more inclined with ways to cut down development cost by maintaining employees longer5 ( P. Cappelli, 2008 ) . The concluding rule requires houses tocontinue the investing by equilibrating employee-employer involvements.Possibly, the chief ground talented employees leave an administration is due to detecting better chances elsewhere. As such, the key to continue your investing in development is by equilibrating both parties involvement ; leting employees to portion in advancement determination is a good illustration as employees want chances for promotion and control over their career6 ( Peter Cappelli, 2008 ) . Other theoretical accounts such as L.A. Berger ‘s 3 chief TM procedures are besides really good for an admini stration to adopt7.A drumhead figure of this faculty can be found in appendix 2.2 followed by elaborate note explicating what it represents. I will now see the issue ofassessment and public presentation directionand its impact on TM.Endowment Reservoircan besides be used unalterably with TM as its aim is to construct a pool of high talented people capable of back uping administrations current and future concern demands ( Berger, L.A 2004:5 ) . Inside this reservoir are assorted talent appraisal tools ; one of which is public presentation assessment ( PA ) . PA exist to let appraisal for preparation demands, reappraisal past public presentations, set public presentation aims etc. The purpose of PA is to bring forth different type of assessment that will let single to see themselves as making the occupation better. There are assorted types of PA tools, two of which are ; 360 grade feedback and forced ranking. The latter will be touched upon inappendix 3. 360grade feedbackallows for what has been losing in modern twenty-four hours assessment ; the sentiment of co-workers and equals etc. 360 degree feedback allows for multiple angle of perceptual experience i.e. everybody working with a peculiar person in a house are required to give feedback on such single normally through a study. This theoretical account was developed farther into a 540 grade feedback by leting external bureaus into the image. PwC went excess lengths by developing its ain 720 grade theoretical account which involved household and friends in the assessment procedure as it believed single externals enterprises outside the companies knowledge can be best justified by household and friends. Although it is of import to follow a theoretical account of measuring endowments in a company, it is more of import to observe the cardinal characteristics of a good assessment which are ; relevancy ( should speak about your occupation ) , sensitive ( can distinguish different type of behavior ) , operable ( able to set into usage ) , dependability ( can be used to mensurate public presentation at given period ) etc. Both forced ranking and 360 degree feedback are non perfect theoretical accounts to use. They have been capable to critics in the yesteryear.Refer to appendix 3. Last, I will discourse wages in relation to TM. At the perpetrator of wages in an administration, wage construction should be designed to suit specific intents, it should be internally consistent, integrated with other HR procedures, governable and manageable, accepted as just and just and eventually it should be flexible. Benefits are an intrinsic portion of the value proposition that administrations offer new and bing employees. Research published by The Economist Showed ; â€Å" wages and employee benefits still rank highly extremely in planing a new value proposition for tomorrow ‘s work force ( 56 % & A ; gt ; , second merely to supplying a better work-life balance through offering flexible working agreements in footings of hours and topographic point of work ( 62 % ) . Structuring a flexible benefits programme so staff can choose the inducements that suit their life style is a cardinal arm in the armory of talent direction and the keeping of star employees. The ability to blend and fit benefits, from pension ‘s and child care, to vacation allowances and gym ranks, plays a cardinal function in pulling endowment. † ( Williams, D. 2008 ) . As mentioned in the development subdivision, it is of import for an administration to honor its gifted employees with actual and perpendicular motion within the house to let for keeping ( S. Rousseau, 2008 ) . Rivals in similar industries will be looking to get the best gifted persons from one another particularly in this current clime of planetary recession. Companies require gifted person to assist them stir farther off from insolvency. As such, retaining such single should be precedence in any company. To reason, talent direction is non merely nice to hold, it is critical to every administration. Talent direction is required to pull off keeping ratio. Effective TM will let for decreased enlisting cost on external endowments. The above prostration suggests how administration should work across the full spectrum of Talent Management. Traveling back to the inquiry, it is of import that talent direction should non be seen as merely an HR enterprise. HR function is to ease the direction of endowment and to move as managers and advisers to line directors. â€Å" HR executives and directors must work together to associate concern scheme with the endowment needed to put to death it † ( Atkins, R. et Al. 2004 ) .BibliographyAtkins, McCutcheon, Penna. ( 2004 ) : ‘The Talent Management Imperative: A Best Practice Approach ‘ , Available at [ Accessed 08 March 2009 ] . Berger, L.A. ( 2004 ) : The endowment direction enchiridion: making organisational excellence by placing, developing, and advancing your best people, London, McGraw-Hill. Cappelli, P. ( 2008 ) ‘Talent Management for the Twenty-first Century ‘ , Harvard Business Review, 86:3, 74-81. CIPD, ( 2006 ) : ‘Reflections on Talent Management ‘ , Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // [ Accessed 02 March 2009 ] . Edwards, E. ( 2008 ) ‘Why Are We Losing All Our Good People ‘ , Harvard Business Review, 86:6, 41-51. Frank, Fredric, Taylor, Craig. ( 2004 ) ‘Talent Management: Trends That Will Shape the Future ‘ , Human Resource Planning, 27:1, 33-41. Rousseau, S. ( 2008 ) : ‘Human Capital Management ‘ , Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // id=546970 [ Accessed 05 March 2009 ] . Williams, D. ( 2008 ) : ‘Flexible benefit can assist talent direction ‘ , Available at hypertext transfer protocol: // id=7497 [ Accessed 08 March 2009 ] .AppendixForced Ranking:is a technique that requires that all the employees in a peculiar group are rated against each other and so ranked in order and so placed into 3 or 4 groups derived from a preset distribution map. The most common are the A, B, C participants e.g. A=20 % of work force, B=70 % , C=10 % . From a TM nomenclature we can mention to this as super-keepers 5 % , Keepers 15 % , solid citizens 70 % , and Poor performing artists 10 % . Argument in favor of forced ranking implies it free up administration by allowing off hapless performing artists which enable distinction in the administration e.g. if at top degree, an person is executing the worst, there could be better persons lower down the hierarchy to make full in and execute better. The bottom side nevertheless is, forced ranking is non legal as it fails to administrate one to one grounds and records. It can be nevertheless used to do superior determinations particularly in athleticss. 1. In its broadest sense, talent direction can be used to depict the designation, development, engagement/reflection, deployment of endowment within a specific organizational context ( CIPD, 2006 ) . 2. Research from DDI found that merely 1/3 of executives believed that their administration ‘s leading capablenesss look promising, while 82 % of companies reported holding a difficult clip happening qualified leader campaigners ( Atkins, R. et Al. 2004 ) . 3. â€Å", with 36percent of the worldwide web calling market, is the largest by far of the overplus of on-line calling web sites. In the 3rd one-fourth of 2003. Monster had 16.7million alone visitants who stayed an norm of 15.6 proceedingss. By September 2003 † ( Fredrick, D. et al. 2004 ) . 4. Leading corporations such as capital One and Dow Chemical ‘s have abandoned long-run endowment prognosiss and moved toward short term simulation ( Cappelli, P. 2008 ) . 5. About 20 % of U.S. employers ask employees who are about to subscribe a contract stipulating that if they leave the concern before certain clip, they have to pay back the cost ( Cappelli, P. 2008 ) . 6. A fictional instance affecting a company called Sambian Partners and its gifted employee Tom Forsythe ( who has been shortlisted for top public presentations by the executives ) saw Tom resigned for a better place with the arch challenger of the house. Several issue interviews were carried out in an effort to retain Tom but attempts were ineffectual. Tom left go forthing the direction to chew over on what went incorrect. One of the staff made a remark stating â€Å" I merely think he looked above him and realized he was traveling nowhere fast. No 1 on the executive squad is even close to retiring, and the org chart is top-heavy as it is. Where ‘s the calling way? † ( E. Edwards, et Al. 2008 ) . Possibly if Sambian Partners had considered the P. Cappelli theoretical account or other similar theoretical accounts, things could hold been different.